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There is also a more radical secularism in European political culture, which is self-consciously exemplified in French lacit.

This form of secularism is less about accommodating religion than about maintaining a republican national romantic carribean resorts space in which religion is resorts with water destination resorts india pvt ltd parks not present while ensuring personal religious freedom outside the civic space. This civic space treeland resorts encompasses not just political and judicial institutions but also schools and, as far as some of its advocates are concerned, extends also to public culture, streets, parks, and shops.

How does this relate to the accommodation of Muslims?

The above suggests that Western Europe may respond to Muslim political assertiveness in two opposing ways, based on its response to two controversies that erupted in 1989: theRushdie affair in the United Kingdom and the headscarf affair in France. In response to the former, realizing that Muslims were excluded from existing racial discrimination and incitement to racial hatred laws, the U.K. government started collecting data to map and respond to socio-economic inequality between religious groups.

In due course, supplementary laws were resorts with water parks created to bring religious equality in line with racial equality (the laws on both of these being the strongest in Europe and most likely to be enforced), and policies began to target Muslim disadvantage no less than racial disadvantage.

government sought interlocutors and partners amongst nationally and locally organized Muslims in order to identify and address legitimate grievances and, more generally, began to develop multi- and interfaith governance in order to express respect for religious communities and the importance of cohesion amongst them as well as in society generally. If Western European nations follow this resorts at nagarhole example, they might allow Muslims to represent themselves in civil society, the media, and government at all levels, and encourage dialogue between religious groups and society.

They might further treat religious discrimination and incitement to resorts with water parks religious hatred seriously, and enforce the law through an agency (perhaps along the lines of the U.K.

Moreover, they might fund Muslim schools, bring Muslims into governance, and promote inter-faith relations at all levels, including in state ceremonies such as Remembrance Day. Measures like this have been enacted in resorts with water snoqualmie ski resorts parks various European countries to differing degrees. Some, however, hav imitated the French response to the 1989 headscarf affair instead.

Based on this example, some Western European nations have banned ostentatious religious insignia in schools and prohibited the wearing of face veils by adults in all public places. They have created a top-down national Muslim council as hotspring resorts in laguna an interlocutor to the government, but bushkill falls resorts orland florida resorts this body only addresses a narrow religious agenda rather than political concerns or, alternatively, addresses a wide agenda without actuating policy (as in the case of the Islam Conference in Germany).

Finally, too many European governments discourage Muslim self-representation in politics and civil society and prefer to initiate debates about Islams relationship to national identity in which resorts with water parks Muslims are the objects of discussion rather than participants to it.

This was the case for the French identity resorts in malshej debate initiated by President all ski resorts Nicolas Sarkozy a few years ago.

It is clear that Western Europe will not be able to integrate its growing population of Muslims into its national polities without rethinking political secularism.

This will be much easier where moderate secularism andmulticulturalism prevail, as opposed to a more radical form of secularism.

European nations must oppose radical secularism, antipathy to public religion, and the trampling and alienating effects this tendency is having on religious freedoms and a growing European Muslim population.

Just as hatta resorts European citizens and governments must oppose the extreme romantic texas resorts nationalism that is asserting itself across the continent, they must also turn away from extreme secularism which, apart from in France, is not the Western European way. Affirming its historically moderate secularism, and adapting it to accommodate a multifaith national citizenry, represents Europes best chance for finding a way forward.Grand City Stays Embrace the Parisian lifestyle on your Grand City Stay at Hotel du Collectionneur.

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